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The Monastic Revival in the tenth century of the history of Europe was a good example of the close relation between a ‘strictness in thinking’ (the orthodoxy of the Benedict’s Rules; LAWRENCE, 1984), the search for identity and its divine and material rewards.
The foundation of the monastery of Cluny in 910 by William Duke of Aquitaine (William the Pious) hallmarked the beginning of a distinct spiritual movement.
They represent war, famine, illness and death as the powers, which destroy mankind.
The quaternion is activated within the context of dualistic thinking: the four horsemen are the negative figures contrasting with the benevolent archangel-guardians of the four directions.
This is number five from a series of sixteen woodcuts. 302 – A fragment of the tapestries with the Apocalypse, designed by Jan Boudolf, ca.
The topic of the four horses of the Revelation gained again momentum in a woodcut of Albrecht Dürer (fig. The theme was popular at the time: tapestries in the chateau of Angers, designed by Jan Boudolf around 1377, showed six apocalyptic horsemen (actually on half-horse half-lion! Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer, printed in Nürnberg (1498), 39,2 x 28,4 cm.
And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him.
And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth’ (Revelation 6: 1 – 8).
They provided an early example of the four horses as a sign of the end of times (fig.
And Bartholomaeus von Unkel used the subject in the Cologne Bible of 1478 (WEHMER et al., 1971; fig. John’ as markers of the pivotal point in the European cultural history.
301 – The four apocalyptic horsemen from the ‘Revelations of St.
COHN (1970) attributed ‘salvationism’ with the following qualities: collectivism, an earthly character, the immanence (the expectation of events happening at short notice), the universal and the miraculous.
These specific points are often in great supply when times of uncertainty arrive and the search for a (new) solidarity is on.